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Phonology

Consonants:

/p t k/ [p t k]
/b d g/ [b d g]
/t͡s t͡ʃ/ [c č]
/d͡z d͡ʒ/ [dz dž]
/ɸ θ s ʃ x ħ/ [f th s š ḫ h]
/β ð z ʒ ɣ ʕ/ [v dh z ž x r]
/m n/ [m n]
/l/ [l]
/j w/ [j w]

Vowels:

/i ɨ u/ [i y u]
/e o/ [e o]
/ə/ [ə]
/a/ [a]

/iː ɨː uː/ [ii yy uu]
/eː oː/ [ee oo]
/ə/ [əə]
/aː/ [aa]

Phonotactics:

CRVCC

R = /ħ ʕ l j w/

Accent:

Stress accent on first syllable.

Nouns

Case:

1. Nominative - gyyn 'woman' gyynt 'women'
2. Genitive -an/-n gyynan 'of woman' gyyntan 'of women'
3. Instrumental -eč/-č gyyneč 'with woman' gyynteč 'with women'
4. Vialis -ak/-k gyynak 'through woman' gyyntak 'through women'
5. Ablative -oth/-th gyynoth 'from woman' gyyntoth 'from women'
6. Allative -od/-d gyynod 'to woman' gyyntod 'to women'
7. Locative -la gyynla 'in woman' gyyntla 'in women'
8. Benefactive -ke gyynke 'for woman' gyyntke 'for women'

Number:

Singular - gyyn 'woman' berk 'wolf'
Plural -t /-ət gyynt 'women' berkət 'wolves'

Verbs

Aspect:

Imperfective - joodh- 'to see'
Iterative -jəl- joodhjəl- 'to see many times'
Perfective -ta- joodhta- 'to see (action performed)'

Voice:

Active - joodh - 'to see'
Passive -ar/-r joodhar- 'to be seen'
Causative -ew-/-w joodhew- 'to show'
Passive-Causative -eḫ-/-ḫ- joodheḫ- 'to be shown'

Mood:

Indicative - joodh- 'to see'
Conditional -baa- joodhbaa- 'would to see'
Jussive -nii joodhnii- 'should to see'

Person:

Singular / Plural

1. -an/-n joodhan 'I am seeing' / -ant/-nt joodhant 'We are seeing'
2. -as/-s joodhas 'thou art seeing' / -ast/-st joodhast 'you are seeing'
3. -af/-f joodhaf 'he/she/it is seeing' / -aft/-ft joodhaft 'they are seeing'

Tense:

Non-past - joodhan 'I am seeing'
Past - special copular verb + participle vahan joodha 'I was seeing'

Participle:

Adjectival -a joodha 'seeing'
Adverbial -o joodho 'seeing'

Gerund/Infinitive:

-ul joodhul 'seeing'

Adjectives

-a čajva 'good'

Degrees of comparison:

Positive - čajva 'good'
Comparative -iit- čajviita 'better'
Superlative -aal- čajvaala 'best'

Adverbs

-o čajvo 'well'

Degrees of comparison:

Positive - čajvo 'well'
Comparative -iit- čajviito 'better'
Superlative -aal- čajvaalo 'best'

Numerals

Cardinal:

1. ažat
2. nagaan
3. kraba
4. dhanan
5. thengan
6. tarb
7. madhal
8. ḫagdan
9. merve
10. caadur
11. ažatcaad
20. nagaancaad
21. nagaancaad ažat
100. tuslak
1.000. gadžak

Ordinal -n-a ažatna
Multiplicative -laar-a ažatlaara
Reproductive -rad-a ažatrada
Distributive -c-a ažatca
Fractional -uj-a ažatuja

Pronouns

Personal pronouns:

1. ni 'I' rat 'We'
2. mu 'thou' vet 'you'
3. es 'he/she/it' ḫet 'they'

Possessive pronouns:

Masculine Feminine

1. nija 'my' ratja 'our'
2. muja 'thy' vetja- 'your'
3. esja 'his/her/its' ḫetja 'their'

Prepositions

Locational:

er 'in'
ha 'on'
hava 'above'
hon 'under'
veer 'beside'
dyyn 'away'
čəən 'between'
zəəv 'behind'
dha 'out'
gagler 'around'
turdh 'before'
hadol 'during'
by 'after'

Other:

četh 'without'
erbeel 'instead'
zəəver 'against'
pahac 'despite, though'
ergyyl 'along, according to'

Particles

Conjunctions:

Paratactical conjunctions:

a 'and'
ača 'also'
ve 'or'
laa 'but'
še 'so'
də 'than'

Hypotactical conjunctions:

ko 'to, for'
čaža 'although'
boo 'because'
peča 'if'
nedhi 'that, providing'

Modifiers:

ažo 'only'
kayo 'yet'

Polarity particles:

dha 'yes'
ma 'no'

Syntax

Word order:

SOV (Subject - Object - Verb)

Describing word - Described word

Copular verb:

ut- 'to be'

Word formation

Derivation:

Agentive / Related person -ca mladz- 'to speak' → mladzca 'speaker' vagu 'cow' → vaguca 'cowman'
Place -man mladz- 'to speak' → mladzman 'rostrum'
Diminutive -(ə)ni šuul 'son' → šuulni 'little son'
Augmentative -baa dov 'mountain' → dovbaa 'grand mountain'
Related abstract -neen bast 'brother' → bastneen 'brotherhood'
Instrument -tok mredž- 'to destroy' → mredžtok 'instrument for destroying'
Instance -eh mladz- 'to speak → mladzeh 'speech'

Possessive / Affiliative -as-a hark 'horse' → harkasa 'equine'
Originative -m-a ningir 'sky' → ningirma 'celestial'
Similaritive -pral-a merk 'cat' → merkprala 'felid'
Feature -eh-a puur 'hair' → puureha 'hairy'
Privative ma-.-eh-a džaaf 'tooth' → madžaafeha 'toothless'
Add a Comment:
 
:iconavatarvyakara:
AvatarVyakara Featured By Owner Edited Jan 4, 2016  Hobbyist Artist
Another nice language! Is there a specific place people use it, or is it just for fun?
Reply
:iconartaxes2:
Artaxes2 Featured By Owner Jan 4, 2016  Hobbyist
This language is unrelated to any conworld and doesn't have yet any regional settings. It was only a training before my conworld named "Dunya" (containing Proto-Samaran and Proto-Karokhic, also Proto-Almatic is preparated).
Reply
:iconavatarvyakara:
AvatarVyakara Featured By Owner Jan 4, 2016  Hobbyist Artist
"Dunya" now. Heheh. Ah, well, I must take a look at these...
Reply
:iconconciliarityoftepat:
conciliarityoftepat Featured By Owner Oct 9, 2015
Pretty thorough summary.

Does the orthography distinguish, say, [θ] and the sequence [tħ]?

Is there a particular reason you made it SOV, but gave it prepositions?
Reply
:iconclockwerkmao:
ClockwerkMao Featured By Owner Oct 9, 2015
Without meaning to speak for the author, lots of SOV languages have prepositions. Branching tendency is a tendency, not a rule, and is often inconsistent from phrase type to phrase type within a single language.
Reply
:iconconciliarityoftepat:
conciliarityoftepat Featured By Owner Oct 9, 2015
True, and I once studied  a language that used both prepositions and postpositions. It's just my impression that when conlangers go against a typological tendency, they often do it for some particular reason. I merely wondered if that was the case. In natural languages it just happens, of course, but it's not a conscious design choice.

Since I like historical change, I've given some conlangs "inconsistent" features for reasons relating to their evolution: they evolved from a proto-language that was a different type, or changed under the influence of a foreign language.
Reply
:iconclockwerkmao:
ClockwerkMao Featured By Owner Oct 10, 2015
Oh man. I am so down with the diachronic.
Reply
:iconaeleks:
Aeleks Featured By Owner Oct 9, 2015  Hobbyist General Artist
Nice, I'm working on a conlang where I only have the phonology and genders. Will take notes from yours.
Reply
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